Many clocking solutions start with an off-chip crystal or MEMS reference at ~19 to 40 MHz. The final clock output needs to have higher frequency (multi-GHz for example), and a precise duty cycle and jitter that meets the system specifications. A crystal oscillator (XO) is used to complete the first step in this process. The XO will typically produce a 19-40MHz clock signal and then make this available to the rest of the chip. This signal from the XO is suitable as a reference clock (FREF) for a Phase Lock Loop Oscillator (PLL).
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